History from Below: The "Vocabulary of Elisabethville" by André Yav: Text, Translations and Interpretive Essay (Creole Language Library)

By Johannes Fabian

Johannes Fabian with the help of Kalundi Mango (Administrator, nationwide Museum of Zaire) and with linguistic notes via Walter Schicho (University of Vienna). a rare linguistic and sociopolitical record, it is a background of colonization written by way of the colonized, concerning the colonized, and for the colonized. the unique textual content, a background of what's now Lubumbashi within the Shaba quarter of Zaire, is reproduced in special facsimile partially 1. The interval coated is from the start of Belgian colonization to 1965. The textual content was once commissioned via an organization of former family servants and written, or compiled, by way of one Andre Yav. The facsimile textual content is by way of linguistic notes (provided through W. Schicho) at the number of Swahili utilized by the writer. partly 2 this extraordinary rfile is two times translated: first, into an oralized' model in present Shaba Swahili and, moment, into English. a number of ancient and linguistic notes make the textual content available to the non-specialist. whereas elements 1 and a couple of are of specific curiosity to linguists, half three covers a much broader zone of highbrow issues. it truly is an essay interpreting the social stipulations, literary ability and political reasons and value of the heritage. Of curiosity to linguists, historians, sociologists and political scientists.

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Kisha" should be noticeable because the remainder of a sentence, marked [anterior]. ) Kutoka faded wazungu wamenjitayarisha mashilika yao ya madini. (And then the whites equipped up their mining businesses. ) Tena Mufalume alitaka kupitisha vitu ku-njia ya Lobito. (Then the King desired to delivery issues through Lobito. ) Na tutoto sasa tunanja tena kurudi nyumbani. (And now the bad children streamed again into the home. ) debris knowing [subsequent] are used again and again in sentences following one another. via this suggests the writer generates the required harmony of his textual content, whatever which in StS is produced by utilizing parts comparable to {ka}. instance: Tena alikuwa mutu mupole tu. Tena muili yake ni mwenye ngosi mwewusi tu, na ... Tena walikuwa wanamwambiya... (He was once a pleasant guy. He had a depressing complexion and . . . additionally they stated to him... ) Negation/N the skin parts for N are verb-initial {a} ({ha}) including verbfinal {e} or with a constrained variety of infixed morphemes. mixed with the 1st individual singular topic pronoun we discover {si} rather than ({*ani}) yet another way, not like in contemporary (oral) texts of SL, {si} is used as a damaging floor marker in basic terms while mixed with temper. fifty two heritage From less than Examples: [negative]: Mimi siweze kutoka sasa. (I cannot go away now. ) Ayibadirike ata kidoko. (The scenario doesn't swap in any respect. ) [negative, past]: Franka haikuwa yenye kutoshwa. (The funds was once no longer adequate. ) ... wabo abakukimbia... (... they didn't run away... ) [expectative] or [negative] to [perfect] ha ... ya (hado) : ... bado abayafika humu mu-Katanga. (... they've got (had) no longer but come to Katanga. ) No examples have been discovered for [negative, future]. Auxiliary verbs for [negative], unknown in StS, yet sometimes utilized in contemporary texts of SL, are documented within the Vocabulaire by way of just one instance: Hiyi ni mambo yile bwana Dédéc alikosaka kupata fasi ya Monseigneur. ((Because of) that subject Monsieur Dedec didn't get the publish of the bishop. ) Auxiliary debris are positioned in sentence-final place, following even embedded sentences ("hapana") or without delay after or earlier than the verb ("bado"). within the latter case they're mixed with an enormous verb. Examples: Awakuwaka na roho mbaya apana. (He didn't have a nasty spirit. ) Naye akutaka njanja ya xmas bwana Jean Jadot yipitiye light apana. (He didn't want the teach of Bwana Jean Jadot to move there. ) Hatuyavumbua bado na sasa mafasi ya mingoti ku-Kasai. (We had now not but came across the mines within the Kasai. ) Makabila ya watu wengi bado abayafika humu mu-Katanga. (People of many origins had now not but arrived right here in Katanga. ) ... mweye wakubwa wetu bado kutunjuwa sisi waboyi. (... you, our leaders, don't but realize us, the lads. ) Mood/M temper can be represented through three parts, each one having diversified levels of in­ tensity: [wish/intention], [necessity] and [possibility/certainty]. floor re­ alizations are the verb-final morpheme {e}, in unfavourable expressions including the morpheme {si}, auxiliary verbs, debris and similar elements. First and moment individual plural may well furthermore be marked by way of a suffix {ni}.

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