By Mark Mazower
Salonica, situated in northern Greece, was once lengthy a desirable crossroads city of other religions and ethnicities, the place Egyptian retailers, Spanish Jews, Orthodox Greeks, Sufi dervishes, and Albanian brigands all rubbed shoulders. Tensions occasionally flared, yet tolerance principally prevailed till the 20 th century whilst the Greek military marched in, Muslims have been pressured out, and the Nazis deported and killed the Jews. because the acclaimed historian Mark Mazower follows the city’s population via plague, invasion, famine, and the disastrous 20th century, he resurrects a desirable and vanished international.
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Additional resources for Salonica, City of Ghosts: Christians, Muslims and Jews 1430-1950
Repeatedly the Slavs laid siege to town; whenever, Saint Dimitrios, it was once acknowledged, saved them at bay in a chain of miracles that have been gathered, written down, and re-told over centuries. The Slav tribes didn't disappear. They settled as farmers and investors in villages throughout Greece and down into the Peloponnese, and the basic ethnographic stability among Salonica and its hinterland over the following fourteen hundred years used to be henceforth demonstrated: a predominantly Slavic peasantry cultivated the soil and was once stored less than the political and fiscal keep watch over of non-Slav elites dependent within the urban. eight yet frontiers are locations of interplay, and few frontiers have been extra permeable or symbiotic than that among the Slavs and the Greeks. the previous trickled into Salonica, drawn through the seductive strength of a Hellenic schooling and the upward mobility this obtained. merely nineteenth-century romantic nationalism became the porous obstacles among Slav and Greek into rigidly patrolled nationwide cages. furthermore, town didn't simply take up the Slavs, however it reached out to them too, and switched over them, in the course of the Church, into participants of its personal civilization. It used to be brothers from Salonica, Constantine (better recognized to posterity by means of his later identify, Kyrill) and Methodius, themselves potentially of Slavic descent, who drew up a brand new alphabet, tailored from Greek, translated the Christian liturgy into Slavic and unfold Christ’s message throughout japanese Europe. the level in their good fortune used to be matched purely through that with which others have been spreading the note of Mohammed within the heart East. The seeds in their project have been planted in Dalmatia, Hungary, Moravia and Poland; by way of the tip of the 9th century the pagan Bulgars too were switched over. hence, a model of the Cyrillic alphabet first devised by means of those sons of a Byzantine officer from Salonica is taught at the present time in faculties from the Adriatic to Siberia. the arrival OF THE OTTOMANS OVER the subsequent 600 years, town turned a centre of humanistic studying and theological debate. Many new church buildings have been validated, turning it right into a treasure-house of past due Byzantine artwork. Monasticism unfold to the Balkans from Egypt and Syria, and the good foundations of Mount Athos attracted pilgrims, students and benefactors to town as they made the adventure to the Holy Mountain simply to its east. but amid this cultural ferment, the Byzantine emperors have been miraculous from drawback to challenge. bold Bulgarian and Serb rulers were—despite their shared Christianity—more of a possibility than they have been allies. In 1185 Salonica used to be pillaged by means of Norman invaders. In 1204 Catholic crusaders—Franks, as they have been contemptuously recognized within the Orthodox world—sacked Constantinople itself and carved up its possessions. To the east, Byzantine energy was once mostly spent. Turkish tribes had moved in from vital Asia, and the increase and fall of the Seljuk sultans grew to become Anatolia right into a battleground among competing emirates. That the empire survived in any respect was once due to the weak spot of its enemies, and the sensible bribery of overseas allies.